4 MAIN TYPE OF OIL FOR POWER PLANT INDUSTRIES
4 MAIN TYPE OF OIL FOR POWER PLANT INDUSTRIES
Today we discussed 4 main type of oil for power plant industries used, in this article, we know about the type of oil used for power generation as well as steam generation for process and also know about their physical characteristics and their GCV ( Gross Calorific value ). Now, these days in power industries or process industries oil is not used at a high scale as a fuel due to its unavailability and also it is very expensive too. Totally oil-fired boilers are generally used where oil is available in a large amount or if power station is located near the refinery. At this place, oil is being used in boilers only at the time of starting or for stabilizing flame if the combustion of coal is not proper due to its bad quality or very high moisture content.
TYPE OF LIQUID OIL USED IN POWER INDUSTRIES
Today, our subject of discussion will not concern totally oil-fired boilers but will be limited to coal-fired boilers in which oil is used for starting/flame stabilization purpose. like that when we starting the boiler with slow firing in starting condition our bed temperature is not sufficient which help for coal burning after that we used charcoal diesel mix so that after reaching furnace temperature greater than 450 deg. Celsius then we started the coal feeding.
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Which Oils is used in power plant for steam generation or heat the thermic fluid are nearly always byproducts of petroleum. Crude petroleum oil contains mainly carbon and hydrogen along with some small amounts of oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulphur. In the refinery crude oil processed in separation towers here, we removed petrol, wax, grease or many more things which is used in industries. The approximate chemical composition of petroleum and its derivatives is carbon 85% & Hydrogen 15%. Many fuels are produced from crude oil by distillation and cracking, which is decomposition under the condition of high temperature and pressure in separation tower in the refinery.
In power station following fuel oils are being used:
1. Low Sulphur Heavy Stock (LSHS)
2. Light diesel oil (LDO),
3. Furnace Oil (FO ), &
4. High-Speed Diesel Oil (HSD)
CHARACTERISTIC OF L.D.O ( LIGHT DIESEL OIL ) AND H.S.D (HIGH-SPEED DIESEL )
LDO (Light diesel oil ) and HSD (High-Speed Diesel Oil )are low viscosity and low flash point oils and can flow easily even at low temperatures. These oils are comparatively costly and have other important applications, such as HSD (High-Speed Diesel Oil )is used in automobiles and diesel locomotives etc. Both these oils can be used without heating and can be automotive etc. Both these oils can be used without heating and can be atomized by compressed air or by mechanical means i.e. passing it through spray/nozzle at high pressure. Their calorific value is near about 10720 KCal/kg. These oils are, therefore, ideal for starting the boiler from the cold when no other source of steam is available for atomization.
Furnace oil, as its name suggests, is the most commonly used oil for limited power generation purpose as mentioned above. Furnace oils are available as low viscosity, medium viscosity, and high viscosity types. These oils have definitely much higher viscosity than LDO (Light diesel oil )or HSD (High-Speed Diesel Oil) . During FO fire boiler we need to be atomized the FO with the help of steam or with the help of heater because of its higher viscosity as compared to LDO (Light diesel oil ) and HSD (High-Speed Diesel Oil) fired the boiler.
LIQUID OIL FUEL CALORIFIC VALUE AND THEIR SULPHUR PERCENTAGE
FUEL OIL GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE (Kcal/kg ) Percentage Of Sulphur Kerosene 11,100 0.05-0.2 Diesel Oil 10,800 0.05-0.25 F.O - Furnace Oil 10,500 2.0-4.0 L.D.O ( Light Diesel Oil ) 10,700 0.5-1.8 LSHS ( Low Sulphur Heavy Stock ) 10,600 <0.5
CHARACTERISTIC OF F.O ( FURNACE OIL ) AND LSHS ( LOW SULPHUR HEAVY STOCK )
Although they are in a fluid state even in winters but cannot easily be handled or used at that temperature. Particularly medium and high viscosity F.O'(Furnace Oil) required heating at the time of unloading and pumping. Even while using, oil has to be preheated to about 1100C to make it free-flowing. Due to low viscosity, it can be atomized by compressed air or mechanically. But better atomization is obtained with steam as above described.
Generally, steam is used for its atomization, F.O.(Furnace Oil ) cannot be used when a boiler is cold and no other source of steam is available. It is comparatively cheaper than HSD (High-Speed Diesel Oil) /LDO ( light diesel oil ) but not very cheap. Its calorific value is approximate 10270 kcals/kg. LSHS Low Sulphur Heavy Stock is a very thick by-product of petroleum. It is highly viscous. It has to be intensively heated even for unloading from tankers. It is so viscous that it almost solidifies in winters and becomes coal tar-like substance. It is, of course, cheaper than F.O(Furnace Oil).
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