Advantages of AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler
In this article we discussed about the advantage of FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustion) boiler because of its grate verity of fuel combustion and grate fuel flexibility and higher combustion efficiency. And many more it’s advantages during operation time. AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler many of advantages which are discussed below briefly
1.Great Fuel Flexibility: AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler can be operated efficiently with a variety of fuels. Even fuels like flotation slimes, washer rejects, and agriculture waste can be burnt efficiently. These type of fuel can be feed either independently or in combination with coal into the same furnace.
2.Less Excess Air Required – Higher CO2 in Flue Gas: The percentage CO2 in the flue gases will be of the order of 14 – 15% at full load. Hence, the AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler can operate at low excess air -only 20 – 25%. So low excess air is required during combustion .
3.High Combustion Efficiency: AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler can burn verity of fuel with a combustion efficiency of over 95% irrespective of ash content. FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustion) boilers can operate with overall efficiency of 84% (±2%).
4.Reduction in Boiler Size: High heat transfer rate over a small heat transfer area
Immersed in the bed results in overall size reduction for the boiler.
5.Simple Operation, Quick Start-Up: High turbulence of the bed facilitates quick
start up and shut down. Full automation of start up and operation using reliable
equipment is possible.
6.Quick Response to Load Fluctuations: Inherent high thermal storage characteristics of FBC boiler can easily absorb changing in fuel feed rates. Response to changing load is comparable to that of oil fired boilers
7.Ability to Burn Low Grade Fuel: AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler would give the rated output even with an inferior quality fuel. The boilers can fire coals with ash content as high as 62% and having calorific value as low as 2,500 kCal/kg. Even carbon content of only 1% by weight can sustain the fluidized bed combustion boiler easily burn the low grade fuel .
8.Ability to Burn Fines: Coal containing fines below 6 mm can be burnt efficiently in
FBC boiler, which is very difficult to achieve in conventional firing system.
9.No Slagging in the Furnace – No Soot Blowing: In AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler, volatilization of alkali components in ash does not take place and the ash is non sticky. This means that there is no slogging or soot blowing.
10.Provisions of Automatic Coal and Ash Handling System: Automatic systems for
coal and ash handling can be incorporated, making the plant easy to operate comparable
to oil or gas fired installations.
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11.Pollution Control: SO2 formation during combustion can be greatly minimized by addition of limestone or dolomite for high sulphur coals (3% limestone is required for every 1% sulphur in the coal feed). Low combustion temperature eliminates NOx formation.
12.Low Corrosion and Erosion: The corrosion and erosion effects are less due to lower
combustion temperature, softness of ash and low particle velocity (around 1 m/sec).
13.Provision of Automatic Ignition System: Control systems using micro-processors
and automatic ignition equipment give excellent control with minimum supervision.
14.High Reliability: The absence of moving parts in the combustion zone results in a high
degree of reliability and low maintenance costs.
15.Reduced Maintenance: Routine overhauls are infrequent and high efficiency is maintained for long periods.
16.Easier Ash Removal – No Clinker Formation: Since the temperature of the
furnace is in the range of 750 – 900 °C in AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler, even coal of low ash fusion temperature can be burnt without clinker formation. Ash removal is easier as the ash flows like liquid from the combustion chamber. Hence less manpower is required for ash handling.
17.Quick Responses to Changing Demand: AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) Boiler can respond to changing heat demands more easily than stoker fired systems. This makes it very suitable for applications such as thermal fluid heaters, which require rapid responses.
18.High Efficiency of Power Generation: By operating the fluidized bed at elevated
pressures, it can be used to generate hot pressurized gases to power a gas turbine. This can be combined with a conventional steam turbine to improve the efficiency of electricity
generation resulting in a potential fuel savings of at least 4%.
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