Babcock and Wilcox Boiler working , construction ,advantage & disadvantages
Today we discussed about the Babcock and Wilcox boiler .in this article we discussed about the construction and working features and advantage and disadvantage of boiler. The Babcock and Wilcox boiler are also is known as Longitudinal Drum Boiler or Horizontal Tubes Boiler it is water tube boiler in water tube boiler water remains inside the tube and hot gases are remains outside the tubes .This type boiler is generally used to produce high pressure steam It was invented by George Herman Babcock and Stephen Wilcox in the year 1967. According to their name this boiler is known as Babcock and Wilcox boiler.
The various main parts of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler are as follows
1. Steam Drum: steam drum is a very important part of Babcock and Wilcox boiler . in steam drum one half of the drum which is horizontal is filled up with water and steam remains on the other half. In steam drum separation of steam take place .
2. Down Take Header: down take header is present at bottom end of the boiler and connects the water tubes to the rear end of the drum. It receives water from the drum.
3.Superheater: superheatre is used to raise the temperature of steam upto superheat level .The boiler is fitted with a superheater tube which is placed just under the drum and above the water tubes
4. Up Take Header: The drum is connected at one end to the uptake-header by short tubes and at the other end to the down-corner by long tubes.
5.Water Tubes: a number of small-diameter steel tubes are fitted at an angle of 5° to 15° with the horizontal to promote the water circulation. These steel tubes are arranged in the combustion chamber in a zigzag way so that more surface area of the tube is exposed to hot gases.
6.. Baffle Plates: The fire-brick baffles, two in number, are provided to deflect the hot flue gases uniformly throughout the boiler
7. Inspection doors: Inspection doors are provided for cleaning and inspection of the boiler during running and shut down condition .
8.. Grate: Coal is fed to the grate through the fire door. Here the combustion of coal take place .
9.Furnace : inside the furnace combustion of fuel take place Furnace is situated kept below the uptake-header.
10. Mud Collector: Mud box is provided at the bottom end of the down comer. The mud or sediments or impurities in the water are collected in the mud box and these impurities are remove through the take a blow down through opening of blow off cock .
11. Feed Check Valve: it is used to fill water into the drum. And also used for the regulating the feed water supply inside the drum.
12. Damper: It regulates the flow of air in the boiler.
WORKING OF BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER
The water in Babcock and Wilcox boilers starts to come in the water tubes from drum through down take header with the help of boiler feed pump which continues feed the water against drum pressure. The water present in the inclined water tubes gets heated up by the hot flue gases produced by the burning of coal on fire grate. these flue gases are uniform heated the water tube with the help of baffle plate which work deflect the glues gas uniform throughout the tubes which absorbed the heat maximum from the flue gases .As the hot flue gases come in contact with water tubes, it exchanges the heat with water and converts it into steam. A continuous circulation of water from the drum to the water tubes and water tubes to the drum is thus maintained. The circulation of water is maintained by convective currents and is known as “natural circulation”.
The steam generated is moved upward due to density difference and through up take header it gets collected at upper side in the boiler drum anti priming pipe inside the drum which work separate the moisture from the steam and send it to super heater . The super heater receives the water free steam from the anti-priming pipe. It increases the temperature of steam to desired level and transfers it to the main steam stop valve of the boiler (MSSV).The super heated steam from the main steam stop valve is either collected in a steam drum or send it to process or used inside the steam turbine for electricity generation .
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BABCOCK AND WILCOX BOILER SILENT FEATURES
-The Steam generation capacity and operating pressure are high compared with fire tube boilers.
-In of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler components are accessible for inspection even during the operation
-overall efficiency of of Babcock and Wilcox Boiler is higher than a fire tube boiler.
-The draught loss inside the furnace is minimum compared with other boiler.
-Damage tubes can be replaced easily in this type of boiler
-Babcock and Wilcox Boiler tubes are kept inclined at an angle of 10 to 15 degree to promote water circulation.
-The boiler rests over a steel structure independent of brick work so that the boiler may expand or contract freely.
-The operating pressure lies between 11.5 to 17.5 bar.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Babcock & Wilcox Boiler :-
– Steam generation capacity is higher than fire tube boiler It is about 2000 to 40000 kg/hr.
– Babcock and Wilcox Boiler occupie less area
– Defect can be attended easily .
– Babcock and Wilcox Boiler: only boiler that is used to generate large quantity of heat in power stations.
– The draught loss is minimum inside the furnace
-Inspection can be made easily during operating condition
– Babcock and Wilcox Boiler is high maintenance cost.
-Babcock and Wilcox Boiler is not much suitable for impure and sedimentary water. In case of impure and sedimentary water, it causes scale formation and may deposit in the tubes and this leads to overheating and bursting of tubes.
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