Boiler Fundamentals Part-1
Today we discussed about a very important topic which is related to boiler familiarization that’s is Boiler Fundamentals Part-1 in this article we discussed about lots of terms which is used into the boiler operation if anybody learn about it , its makes the things very easy to understand boiler operation as well as boiler maintenance also . boiler plays a very important role in modern electric generation units so every should know about it very well before operating it , a skilled full operator operate the boiler in efficient manner and also maximize the generation and reduced the generation cost . So these “Boiler Fundamentals Part-1” helps the boiler operator become more skill-full and improving their knowledge in their relative field.
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE- the actual pressure or absolute pressure of the system can be obtained by adding gauge pressure with atmospheric pressure Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, .The sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure.
Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure
ACCESSORY– Piece of equipment not directly attached to the boiler but necessary for its operation.
ACCUMULATION TEST– Test used to establish the relieving capacity of boiler safety valves.
AIR COCK or Air Vent– air cock or air vent is installed on the main stream line top or steam dump top portion for removing the inside air. Startup vent is a also air cock which is used for the startup of the boiler and it protect the boiler superheatre tubes get overheat.
AIR EJECTOR- Steam-driven device that removes air and other non condensable gases from the condenser, thus maintaining a higher vacuum.
AIR FLOW SWITCH– Proves that primary air is supplied to the burner.
AIR TO FUEL RATIO– Amount of air and fuel supplied to the burner over high and low fire.
AIR HEATER- Supplies heated air for combustion. Located in the breeching between the boiler and chimney. By increasing the combustion air temperature 20 deg. C rise in air preheating by waste heat recovery you save 1% of fuel .
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE– Temperature of the surrounding air.
ALKALINITY– Determined by boiler water analysis. Boiler water with a PH over 7 is considered alkaline.
ANTHRACITE COAL– anthracite is the last stage of coalification. This type of coal is available in deeper surface of earth with narrow seam. This type of coal having less volatile matter and high carbon percentage. It has sub-metallic luster. Some time it appears like graphite. It burns without smoke and without smoke and with short non- luminous flame. As volatile matter is less it ignites with difficulty.
ASH HOPPER- Large receptacle used to store ashes until they can be disposed of. Generally ash hoppers are at that place where the ash generation is at large scale inside the boiler like in furnace hopper in travelling grate boiler , where the waste of combustion product escape through the boiler furnace and collected in the ash hopper after that it continued fall on the conveyor and conveyor take it to ash yard . ash hopper are also used in boiler bank zone and as well as ESP ( electrostatic precipitator ) bottom side for collecting ash .
ASME CODE– Code written by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers that controls the construction, repairs and operation of steam boilers and their related equipment. ASME develops voluntary standards that enhance public safety, health, and quality of life as well as facilitate innovation, trade, and competitiveness.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE– The atmospheric pressure is the weight exerted by the overhead atmosphere on a unit area of surface. It can be measured with a mercury barometer, consisting of a long glass tube full of mercury inverted over a pool of mercury Pressure at sea level (14.7 psi).
ATOMIZE– To break up liquid into a fine mist.
AUTOMATIC NONRETURN VALVE– Valve located on the steam line closest to the shell of the boiler that cuts the boiler in on the line and off-line automatically. This valve also protects the system in the event of a large steam leak on any boiler.
AUXILIARIES– Equipment necessary for the operation of a boiler.
BAFFLES- Direct the path of the gases of combustion so that the maximum heat will be absorbed by the water before the gases of combustion enter the breeching and chimney.
BALANCED DRAFT– When the intake damper is automatically controlled by the pressure in the furnace. Furnace pressure is maintained slightly below atmospheric pressure.
BENT-TUBE BOILER– A water tube boiler with more than one drum in which the tubes connect the drums.
BITUMINOUS COAL– Soft coal that has a high volatile content. Bituminous coal is divided in to three groups depending upon moisture, carbon, and volatile matter, these are: sub bituminous, semi bituminous, bituminous coal.
BLOWDOWN TANK– Coded tank vented to the atmosphere that protects sewer lines from boiler pressure and high temperature when blowing down.
BLOWDOWN VALVES– Found on the boiler blowdown line at the lowest part of the water side of the boiler.
BOILER CAPACITY- Pounds of steam per hour that a steam boiler is capable of producing.
BOILER EXPLOSION- Caused by a sudden drop in pressure (failure on the steam side) without a corresponding drop in temperature.
BOILER HORSEPOWER– The evaporation of 34.5 pounds of water per hour from and at a feed water temperature of 212°F.
BOILERS IN BATTERY– Two or more boilers connected to a common steam header.
BOILER LAY-UP- Removing a boiler from service for an extended period of time. A boiler can be laid up wet or dry.
BOILER ROOM LOG BOOK– it is a data sheet which used to record pressures, temperatures and other operating conditions of a boiler on a daily basis. it’s a very important activity which is followed by the boiler desk engineer of the plant this log book helps us review the operating conditions of the past and also helps us for comparing the parameters of past with running parameters of boiler which give the clear idea about how long we can operated the boiler without any problem. If the boiler parameters are running out of safe limit then immediately take shutdown of boiler ,high temperature in specific zone or highly positive draft indicates the boiler choking.
BOILER SHUTDOWN- A sequence of operations completed when taking a boiler off-line. Boiler shut down may emergency type shutdown in which boiler stoppage due to permanent failure of any part of boiler, planned shut down or yearly shut down these shut down depending upon the shut down job activities according to their importance .
BOILER START-UP- A sequence of operations completed when preparing a steam boiler for service or for boiler maintenance purpose. In this sequence boiler or battery is connected with a system which is connected with a steam consumer like turbine or processes.
BOILER TUBES– Used to carry water or heat and gases of combustion. May be straight or bent.
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