Boiler Fundamentals Part-2 - ASKPOWERPLANT
boiler fundamentals part -2

Boiler Fundamentals Part-2

Today we discussed about a very important topic which is related to boiler familiarization that’s is Boiler Fundamentals Part-2 in this article we discussed about lots of terms which is used into the boiler operation if anybody learn about it , its makes the things very easy to understand boiler operation as well as boiler maintenance also . boiler plays a very important role in modern electric generation units so every should know  about it very well before operating it , a skilled full operator operate the boiler in efficient manner and also maximize the generation and reduced the generation cost . So these “Boiler Fundamentals Part-2” helps the boiler operator become more skill-full and improving their knowledge in their relative field.

Boiler Fundamentals Part-1

CALIBRATE Adjusting a pressure gauge to conform to a test gauge. After continue service pressure gauge having some error in their reading they need to be calibrated for resolving their error. dead weight tester is also a very important tools for calibrating the error pressure gauge in this method according to pressure dead weight put on one side and another side pressure gauge is installed for calibration  and hydraulic oil is play an important role in this method they compress the pressure gauge and show the reading according to dead weight .


CARRYOVER Particles of water that flow with the steam into the main steam line. Carryover is due to incomplete separation of steam from the steam water mixture in the boiler drum. Steam separation units are placed inside the boiler drum.  Defect on these separation units may leads to carry over. Foaming of boiler water is also responsible for carryover. Boiler design type of mechanical steam separating equipment, load fluctuation, boiler drum level, amount of space available for steam separation from the steam water mixture are some causes of carryover.


CAUSTIC EMBRITTLEMENT where there is excessive deposit inside the tube surface, water flow in contact with tubes reducing. Causing local under deposited boiling and concentration of boiler water chemical increase at that area. F the boiler water PH is high it results in a corrosive attack and break down protective magnetite layer. This failure is characterized as localized wall loss at the inside wall of the tube .The collection of high alkaline material that leads to breakdown and weakening of boiler metal.

Boiler Fundamentals Part-2

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE Force caused by a rotating impeller that builds up in a centrifugal pump. Most boiler feed pumps are this type. This is force in moving object in circular path. And this force is force is force pulling object outside from center of circle. This force has many applications in day life. This is principal of centrifugal force we come across in daily life centrifugal machine is classic example of centrifugal force. Washing machine is also one example of this force.

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP centrifugal pumps are used to induce flow or raise pressure of a liquid . its working is simple . At the heart of the system lies impeller. It has a series of curved vanes fitted inside the shroud plates. The impeller is always immersed in the water .when the impeller is made to rotate; it makes the fluid surrounding it also rotate. This imparts centrifugal force to the water particles and water particles and water moves radially out .a centrifugal pump is a machine that uses rotation to impart velocity to a liquid and then converts that velocity into flow .Works on the principle of centrifugal force that is converted into pressure.


CHAIN (TRAVELING) GRATE STOKER- A cross-feed stoker that is used with larger capacity boilers because of its ability to feed coal at a faster rate than other stokers. 
In this type of stocker coal is fed by the help of variable feeding device called as feeder , which throws coal in to the furnace. Some portion of coal particularly fine particles  burn in suspension and remaining large size of coal falls to the stationary or moving grate , where it burns. The stationary grate is moved periodically to remove ash from the grate . Primary air is supplied to the furnace through openings of grate . Secondary air is supplied through nozzles.

COAL FEEDER :- Coal feeder is a variable speed rotating drum having large number of blades mounted on it depending upon the load on the boiler, feeder speed is adjusted. The spreader distributes coal uniformly over the grate.

CHECK VALVE- Automatic valve that controls the flow of a liquid in one direction. check valve are generally in liner motion valve . This can be used to open , isolate and regulate the flow. There is a flexible disc which matches with seat. Diaphragm is connected to a compressor which is connected to the steam. Compressor is moved up and down with the movement of steam. When the compressor is lower, diaphragm is pressed and stop fluid flow . When the steam is raised the compressor also raises and diaphragm lifts and allows fluid flow. This valve can be used for throttling service also.

CHEMICAL COMPOUND- Formed when two or more different chemical elements combine into a new substance. With a fixed ratio determine the composition. Here is an example of chemical compounds water H2O is a compound consistent of two hydrogen atoms bonded with an oxygen atom.

CHEMICAL CONCENTRATION- in the terms of chemistry concentration is define as the amount of substance per defined space. And also know as concentration is the ratio of solute in a solution to either solvent or total solution. Concentration is usually is expressed in terms of mass per unit volume. The amount of a specific chemical in the boiler water. 

Boiler Fundamentals Part-2

CHEMICAL ENERGY- Energy is stored in chemical energy form in fuel .chemical energy can be released as heat by combustion or oxidation. Energy in the fuel converted to heat energy during the combustion process. This heat can be used for various purposes. This heat energy can be used directly or can be converted into mechanical energy.

CHIMNEY- Chimney is a structure for venting hot flue gas from boiler to outside atmosphere at a suitable height to ensure the pollutants are dispersed over a wide area to meet legislation or safety requirement. The chimney height is determined primarily by environment protection agency permitted ground level concentration limits. The chimney is almost vertical to ensure flow of flue gas is smooth. Chimney is used to create draft. Also an outlet to the atmosphere for the gases of combustion. 

COAL BUNKER- An overhead bin where large quantities of coal are stored. coal bunker is generally installed into large capacity boiler or coal fired boiler . In which at a large scale coal is requirement for the combustion purpose. So coal bunker is installed for storage of coal and providing means of continuous supply of coal to the feeder. It’s also provided conditions supply of coal when any fault is observed into the coal transportation like Conyers belt get damage or any electrical fault.

COAL CONVEYOR-conveyer belt is used for feeding coal into boiler. There are number of belts used for coal transportation from coal stock yard up to boiler bunkers. A belt conveyer is an endless rubberized flat belt moving between pulleys at either ends. It consists of various pulleys idler arrangement and a suitable belt tensioning arrangement system. All these components are mounted on a suitable steel structure. The carrying conveyer normally called as troughed belt moves over the supporting idler sets. The belt is driven by one of the pulleys (usually the head pulley). The material is feed to the conveyer at the tail end through a chute and is transport along the carrying side to the head end where it is discharge to the discharge chute. This mechanism on a stoker that moves coal to the coal scale. 

COAL FEEDER-  a coal feeder is an equipment used in a coal handling plant to control or regulated the rate of coal flow from a bin or hoppers. Feeder is used in conjunction with Conveyers, crushers and vibrating screen .there are many types of coal feeder are used in power plant like vibrating feeder , belt feeder, apron feeder , screw feeder etc .these feeder are used for controls the flow of coal entering the pulverizer in power plant. 

COAL GATE- Used to control the depth of coal entering the boiler furnace on chain grate stokers. 

COAL RAM- Distributes coal evenly into the center retort on underfeeds stokers and forces the coal up to the top where it is burned. 

COAL SCALE- Measures and records the amount of coal fed to stoker-fired or pulverized coal fired boilers.

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL- Any material that burns when it is exposed to oxygen and heat. 

COMBUSTION- The rapid union of oxygen with an element or compound that results in the release of heat. 

COMBUSTION CONTROL- Regulates the air to fuel ratio supplied to the burner. 

COMPLETE COMBUSTION– The burning of all supplied fuel using the minimum amount of excess air.

COMPRESSIVE STRESS- Occurs when two forces of equal intensity act from opposite directions, pushing toward the center of an object. Fire tubes in a fire tube boiler are subjected to compressive stress.

CONDENSATE- Steam that has lost its heat and has returned to water.

CONDENSATE PUMP- Used to return condensed steam to the open feed water heater.

CONDENSATE TANK- Where condensed steam (water) is stored before it is delivered back to the open feed water heater by the condensate pump. Generally condensate storage tank installed into ACC ( air cooled condenser) where the exhaust steam is cooled with the help of air cooled condenser after that condense water stored into the CST ( Condensate storage tank ) and transfer through the CDP ( condensate drift pump ). And this pump sends it to deaerator tank for further to boiler for steam generation purpose.

CONDENSE- Process whereby steam turns back to water after the removal of heat. 

CONDUCTION- A method of heat transfer in which heat moves from molecule to molecule. Conduction method of heat transfer is mainly seen in solid objects. It can happen when any hot material comes in contact with coal material.Some materials are better conductors of heat than other. For example metals are good conductors of heat while a material like wood isn’t. When mental is heated at one end felt hot on other end, while that does not happen with a piece of wood. Good conductors of electricity are often good conductors of heat.

DAMPER- Used to control the flow of air or gases in waste heat recovery boiler sliding gate dampers is used for controlling the waste gases coming from the kiln coolers. These dampers are operated through a motor which are control by CCR operators according to their demands. In boiler fans dampers are also used for controlling the air according to the requirement these dampers are controlled by the pneumatic controller.

DATA PLATE- A plate that must be attached to a safety valve containing data required by the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) code. These data plates show the specification of the safety valve like size, class, etc. These data plates are help us the selection of safety valve according to their requirement.

DEADWEIGHT TESTER- Used to test a pressure gauge so that it can be recalibrated. Dead weight tester contains the load at one side and another side is pressure gauge for calibration. According to the pressure range dead weight are place at one side. According to the dead weight load pressure gauge showing correct reading that pressure gauge has been calibrated.

DEAERATING FEEDWATER HEATER- Type of open feed water heater equipped with a vent condenser.

DESUPERHEATING- Removing heat from superheated steam to make it suitable for process. Desuper heating system is also used for the boiler operations whenever main steam line temperature soot up suddenly due to some abnormalities then we used the desuperheating system which sprinkle the low temperature water directly into the steam and reduced their temperature according to the requirement. Desuper heating system are mostly given after the primary super heater outlet and secondary super heater inlet.

DISCHARGE PIPING- Piping attached to the outlet side of a safety valve that conveys steam to the atmosphere or also discharges the steam into the blowdown trench.

DRAFT- The difference in pressure between two points that causes air or gases to flow. 

DRY PIPE SEPARATOR- A closed pipe perforated at the top with drain holes on the bottom that remove moisture from the steam. At this place steam trap are used now these days because of their long life and their performance , thermodynamic steam trap , float type steam trap , bimetallic stem trap  are used for this purpose .

DUPLEX STRAINERS- Remove solid particles from the fuel oil in fuel oil systems. Duplex type strainers are used in turbine oil system for removing the turbine oil impurities, duplex type strainers are used for removing the dirt from the lube oil. Duplex type strainer generally up to the size of 10 to 15 micron.

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