Classification of the steam turbine:-
In this article we discussed about the classification of steam turbine according to their usages and operation condition . Steam turbine is a power machine taking overheated steam(refrigerant) with certain temperature and pressure as its motive force, and converting the heat energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor rotation. It is the most widely used prime mover in modern thermal power plants. Steam turbine has some advantages as bigger power of single stand, high thermal efficiency, smooth operation, low accident rate, long lifetime and so on. In the turbine, the steam’s heat energy can be converted into mechanical energy of rotation generally through two different working principles: one is the impulsive action principle, and the other one is the reactionary action principle.
Classification of the steam turbine:-
According to the different principles of doing work, the steam turbine can be divided into impulse type and reaction type.The steam turbine can be classified into the following types according to its thermal power process:
According to blade design:-
According steam flow:-
-Axial flow turbine
-Radial flow turbine
According to exhaust conditions of turbine:-
-Straight condensing or close cycle turbine
-Non condensing or back pressure turbine
-Partial condensing or extraction turbine
–Condensing steam turbine: Except a small amount of steam leakage, all or most of the steam entering into the turbine to do work is discharged into the condenser, forming the condense water
-Back pressure steam turbine: After doing work in the steam turbine, the steam, whose pressure is higher than the atmospheric pressure, is discharged into the exhaust steam room used for heating and as industrial used steam.
-Adjustable extraction steam turbine:Part of the steam which has done work is extracted under a certain pressure used as industrial used steam or for heating.
–Intermediate reheat steam turbine: The steam which has done work in the high-pressure cylinder often the steam turbine will be sent back to the boiler re heater for reheating the steam to a new temperature, then back to the medium-pressure, low-pressure cylinder continue to do work.
According to the number of cylinder
-Single cylinder turbines
-Double cylinder turbines
-Three cylinder turbines
-Four cylinder turbines
Multi cylinder turbines which have their rotors mounted on one and the same shaft and coupled to a single generator are known as single shaft turbines .turbines with separate rotor shafts for each cylinder placed parallel to each other are known as multi axial turbines
>According to pressure of turbine:-
-High pressure turbine
-Low pressure turbine
-Medium pressure turbine
-Low-pressure steam turbine: the new steam pressure is 1.2～1.5Mpa;
-Medium-pressure steam turbine: the new steam pressure is 2.0～4.0Mpa;
-Sub-high pressure steam turbine: the new steam pressure is 5.0～6.0Mpa;
-High pressure steam turbine: the new steam pressure is 6.0～10.0Mpa.
-High pressure turbines utilizing steam at pressure of 170 ata and high temperature of 535 digree C and higher.
-Turbines of super critical pressure using steam at pressure of 255 ata and above .
According to the principal of action
-Axial reaction turbines
-Radial reaction turbines with stationary guide blades
-Radial reaction turbines without any stationary blades
>According to application:-
According to method of governing
-Turbines with throttle governing in which fresh steam esters through one or more simultaneously operated throttle valves.
-Turbines with nozzle governing in which fresh steam enters through two or more consecutively opening regulators.
-Turbines with bypass governing in which steam , besides being fed to the first stage is also directly led to one , two or even three intermediate stages of the turbines
>According to point of steam entry:-
-End admission turbine
-Center admission turbine
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