Filtration process in water treatment:-
In flirtation process the water is passed through a filter bed which consists of porous martial ( sand,gravel,charcoal). When water passes through the bed , the suspended solids matters are collected in the bed clear filter water is collected from the bottom of bed of the filter bed . after some quantity of water passed through the bed , it is required to wash the bed to remove collected sediments from the bed . after washing this bed , it can be used again . normally during washing of bed, water is passed in the reverse direction of the normal water flow during filtration . this is called backwash. High pressure air from a blower is used to agitate the bed to remove the deposited sediment easily.
In dm plant, pressure filter and activated carbon filter is used to make the water completely free from suspended solids . in pressure filter water is passed through gravel and sand bed.
Activate carbon or charcoal is used at activated carbon filter. Activated carbon is a black solid substance resembling granular or powdered charcoal. it has large surface area which is extremely porous, and typically produced from organic precursors such as bamboo, coconut shells, wood chips, palm-kernel shell , sawdust and seed . Activate carbon adsorption is an effective means for reducing organic chemicals, chlorine, lead, and unpleasant tastes and odors.
When the filter bed is continues in services then the bed upper part choked by collection of large amount of total dissolved solids ,so the differential pressure across the bed increase and indicate the bed is required to be back washed. Pressure filter sand bed is agitated with the help of air from a blower to clean the bed thoroughly.
in filtration process removal of the insoluble materials in water, such as sand, colloid, organic substances and etc. here we classified different type of filtration equipment which is used for the water filtration in different-2 industries process.
Filter equipment’s classification:-
Pressure-type filter: ordinary filter, double-flow filter, multi-layer filer
Filter basin: no-valve filter basin, single-valve filter basin, siphon filter basin
Coagulation filter: through-flow coagulation filter, contact coagulation filter, high-speed coagulation filter, minor-flocculation coagulation filter and aperture coagulation filter
Adsorption filter: active carbon
Power station filter
-Single-flow mechanical filter with double fillings of hard coal and silica sand
-Active carbon filter with active carbon filter material
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