Function of turbine cylinder in turbine operation:-
in this article we discussed about the function of the steam turbine cylinder during ruining of the steam turbine .The turbine steam cylinder, the shell of the steam turbine, is one of the main components of the static part of the steam turbine. Its function is to isolate the flow passage from the atmosphere to form the closed space for transferring the steam energy and the other static part (such as clapboard, nozzle room and so on) supporting the steam turbine. There are rotor, clapboard, steam seal and other parts equipped inside the turbine steam cylinder. there are steam pipes, exhaust pipes connected to the outer cylinder.
The turbine steam cylinder not only bears the steam pressure difference between inside and outside the cylinder and such static load as the cylinder itself and the weight of other parts equipped inside it, but also during the operation. due to the axial and radial non-uniform temperature distribution inside the cylinder, especially when the unit quickly starts, stops and the changes of working conditions are relatively large, it will cause large changes in temperature, resulting in a huge temperature stress and thermal deformation temperature in the turbine steam cylinder and the flange.
Therefore the main loads the turbine steam cylinder contains are:
1. Steam pressure
2. Axial thrust and reverse thrust generated by the steam flow.
3. Static load caused by the weight of such parts as cylinder, rotor, and clapboard and dynamic load caused the the rotor vibration.
4. The thermal stress of such components as cylinders, flanges, and bolts due to difference in temperature.
5. The force of the main steam pipes and exhaust pipes on the cylinder.
6. Although the cylinder bears basically unchanged static load, due to the change of such parameters as steam flow, temperature, specific volume, the cylinder is still a important and greatly influential component of the steam turbine, heavy in weight, complex in shape. Therefore, the structural shape and supporting way of the cylinder should be carefully designed in order to ensure the cylinder can be freely and symmetrically move (expand) along a certain direction when the temperature changes and minimize the thermal stress and deformation.
In general, the thermal stress the turbine steam cylinder bears and thermal deformation within the permitted range will not cause permanent deformation and the friction of dynamic and static parts. Cylinder, particularly the high-pressure parts of the cylinder, is often under a relatively complex thermal stress. The thermal stress the turbine steam cylinder bears is the most dangerous stress causing the cylinder deformation and crack damage. It is not only great in value, but also it is difficult to pre-make accurate calculation theoretically. turbine steam cylinder will have a significant thermal deformation in operation, due to the steam heating and the temperature difference between the various components. Therefore, we must ensure that the cylinder and various components within the cylinder are free to expand, and make sure that the static part and the rotating part are concentric with each other and have a reasonable gap.
Cylinder is usually made into the level of sub-forms of the level joints; the upper half is called the upper cylinder or cylinder head, while the lower half is called the lower cylinder. The upper and lower cylinders linked together by flanges and bolts. Flanges joints are required to be smooth, and high in finish in order to ensure the upper and lower cylinder is rigorous and will not leak steam after bonding. the cylinder is a cylinder composed of front and rear single-cylinder structure. The front cylinder is steel castings, while the rear cylinder is iron castings. In the design The front cylinder has a good symmetrical shape, avoiding the over thickness and over width of the horizontal equilibrium flange to minimize surface steam leakage caused by the heat stress and thermal deformation. The front and rear cylinder are connected by the vertical flange. Steam room and a nozzle are connected; the nozzles and the front cylinder are welded together; steam room is arranged .
The front cylinder is simple cylinder structure with upper and lower half part, connecting to the cylinder through the vertical flange behind. The rear cylinder and the rear bearing seat are cast as a whole, connecting with the condenser through the exhaust equipment and the right and left sides bearing on the in the back seat. There are the rear bearing of the steam turbine and the front bearing of the generator installed inside the bearing seat, and there is turning gear installed in the rear bearing cover.
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