ION EXCHANGER IN WATER TREATMENT PROCESS
Today we discussed about an very important equipment which is used into the D.M plant into a power unit that’s equipment is ion-exchanger which is used for treating the boiler water .Ion-exchange or water conditioners one of the simplest methods now these days for removing hardness from a water supply is by use of a sodium zeolite water softener. ion exchanger softeners of this type use zeolite, an insoluble granular material which having the ability to exchange hardness, in the form of calcium and magnesium ions, for sodium ions, which do not produce hardness. The total amount of chemicals dissolved in the water is not reduced, but they are changed to non-hardness-producing chemicals, which results softening the water.
in ion-exchanger exchange material is contained in a steel tank sufficient to withstand the pressure of the water system. The raw water is introduced above the bed, and the exchange takes place as the water flows downward through the zeolite. On these softeners meters and the necessary valves and accessories are mounted for controlling the regeneration procedure. Normally the outlet water from these softeners shows zero hardness. When a sample of the outlet water shows hardness, the capacity of the exchange material has been reduced due to continuous working, and it must be restored by regenerating with a brine solution (sodium chloride).
The ion exchanger regeneration procedure involves three steps:-
1.The softener is taken out of service, and a swift flow of water is passed upward through the zeolite bed. This flow of water agitates and regrades the zeolite and at the same time washes away dirt that may have been deposited during the softening operation.
2.After the back washing has been completed, the brine is introduced by means of a water-actuated ejector. The brine is evenly distributed above the zeolite bed by a system of piping, ensuring an even flow through the bed and regeneration with a minimum of salt. During the regeneration process, calcium and magnesium are removed as soluble chlorides, and the zeolite sodium content is replenished.
3.After the salt has been introduced, the calcium and magnesium chloride together with the excess salts must be washed from the zeolite bed by means of a relatively slow flow of rinse water. After this rinsing operation has been completed, the softener may be returned to service. The hard water enters the top of the softener tank and flows
downward through the bed in ion-exchanger and then through the meter, and finally to the outlet as soft water. The ion exchanger regeneration requires a total of 35 to 65 min, and the soft water requirement plus the backwash and rinse must be provided either from a stored water supply or by another softener. It is customary to install two or more units so that adequate water is available to the boiler during the regenerative cycle.
These ion exchanger softeners can be regenerated either by hand manipulation or by automatic control. Softeners may be equipped with the necessary hand valves for backwashing, supplying the salt solution, and rinsing. However, the operation is simplified by the use of a multi ported valve with a single control handle that is moved from the run position through the backwash, salt, and rinse positions and back to run, allowing the correct amount of time in each position.
The ion exchanger regeneration is performed automatically by a power-driven multiport valve and timers that allow the valve to remain in each position the predetermined amount of time. When the raw water hardness remains nearly constant, or when the variation takes place slowly, a meter provides an adequate means of determining the time to regenerate. After a predetermined amount of water has passed through the meter, a signal warns the operator that it is time to regenerate.
In the case of an automatic ion exchanger unit, the signal from the meter may be used either to alert the operator or actually to initiate the regeneration cycle. When the hardness of the raw water varies widely, the effluent must be analyzed for hardness to determine when regeneration is required. This determination may be made with an automatic hardness tester and the resulting signal used to warn the operator or initiate the regeneration cycle. When two or more automatically controlled softeners are installed, they are interlocked so that only one can be out of service for regeneration at any given time.
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