Sedimentation Process in water treatment
In this process, water is kept standstill in a large settling (clarifier ). Undissolved suspended solids are settled at bottom of the tank. the sediment deposited in this process is removal by a so Slow moving horizontal scrapper. This process is very slow. it takes long time to settle the suspended solids. Also total solid cannot be removed completely in this process. Addition of coagulates like alum makes the settling process faster. Poly electrolyte is also used for this. another important external treatment of water is Demineralization process . this process is used at large scale in modern power plant industries for softening the water . here we discussed the demineralization process in detail way :
Demineralization process :-
Demineralization is the Removal of dissolved ionic impurities that are present in water. Demineralized water is commonly produced by one or a combination of following process.
3. Thermal desalination
The method selected to produced Demineralized water depends on the quality of the influent water , the required quality of influent water , the availability of the resources such as regenerant chemicals , and waste water treatment and disposal requirement . The economics of the process that that produce acceptable effluent quality must be evaluated to determine the most cost effective method for a specific application.
Inorganic Removal is accomplished through the adsorption of contamination ions into a resin exchange medium. One ion is substituted for another on the charged surface of the medium that is usually a plastic resin. This type of surface is designed as either cationic or anionic negatively charged. The medium is saturated with exchangeable ions before the treatment operations.
The contaminant ions during ion exchange, replaced the regenerant ions because they are preferred by the exchange medium. When no ions are left to take the place of the contaminant ions, the medium is regenerated with a suitable solution that saturates the medium with the appropriate ions . Since there is a required down time, the regeneration cycles are done only once per day.
For resin exchange, capacity is expressed in terms of weight per unit volume of the resin used. Calculation of the breakthrough time for an ion exchange unit requires knowing the resin exchange capacity, influent contaminant concentration and the desired effluent quality.
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Advantage of D.M plant
> Ion exchange can be used with fluctuating flow rates
> Makes effluent contamination impossible
> Resin are available in large varieties from supplier’s and each resin is effective in removing specific contamination.
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