TYPE OF TURBINES AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION:-
Heii power plant operation engineers today we discussed about the “ TYPE OF TURBINES AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION “ we are worked in different -2 power sector industries in which we see that the different-2 steam turbines like that full condensing , impulse cum reaction , back pressure turbine , bleed cum condensing many more things regarding turbine which we know about the turbine characteristic. In this article we know about the classification of turbine according to their operation conditions.
Steam turbine may be classified into different categories depending on their construction, the process by which heat drop is achieved, the initial and final conditions of steam used and their industrial usage. This has been detailed in the subsequent
According to the number of pressure stages:-
in small power single stage turbine usually with one or more velocities stage in small power capacity, these turbines are mostly used for driving centrifugal compressor blowers and other similar machinery.
Multistage impulse and reaction turbine they are made in a wide range of power capacities varying from small to large.
According to the direction of steam flow:-
Axial turbine in which the steam flows in a direction parallel to the axis of the turbine
Radial turbine in which the steam flows in a direction perpendicular to axis of the turbine with one or more low pressure stages in such turbines being axial.
According to the number of cylinder:-
*Single cylinder turbines
In single cylinder turbines all stages are housed in one casing, then it is called single cylinder. Such a single cylinder turbine uses one shaft.
*Double cylinder turbines
*Three cylinder turbines
*Four cylinder turbines
Multi cylinder turbine which have their rotors mounted on one and the same shaft and coupled to a single generator are known as single shaft turbines. Multi axial turbines have separate rotor shafts for each cylinder placed parallel to each.
On the Basis of Number of Shaft:-
- Tandem compound,
- Cross compound
Most multi-cylinder turbines drive a single shaft and single generator Such turbines are termed as tandem compound turbines.
In this type, two shafts are used driving separate generator. The may be one of turbine house arrangement, limited generator size, or a desire to run shafting at half speed. The latter choice is sometimes preferred so that for the same centrifugal stress, longer blades may be used, giving a larger leaving area, a smaller velocity and hence a small leaving loss.
According to the method of governing:-
Turbines with throttling governing in which fresh steam through one more ( depending on the power developed ) simultaneously operated throttle valves.
Fresh steam enters through two or more consecutively opening regulators in turbines with nozzle governing
Turbine with bypass governing in which steam , beside being to first stage is also directly led to one , two or even three intermediate stages of the turbine.
According to the principal of action of steam:-
-Axial reaction turbines
-Radial reaction turbines with stationary guide blades
-Radial reaction turbines without any stationary blades
According to heat drop process:-
Condensing turbines with regeneration:- in these turbines steam at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure id directed to a condenser steam is also extracted from intermediate stage for feed water heating. The number of such extraction usually vary from 2-3 as much as 8-9 . The latent heat of exhaust steam during the process of condensation is completely lost in these turbines small capacity turbines of earlier often do not have regenerative feed heating.
Condensing turbines with one or two intermediate stage extraction at specific pressure for industrial and heating purposes.
Back pressure turbine: –
The exhaust steam is utilized for industrial or heating purposes. To this type of turbines with deteriorated vacuum can also be add; the exhaust steam of which may be used for heating and process purposes.
Topping turbines :-
These turbines are also of the back pressure type with the difference that the exhaust stem from these turbines is further utilized in medium and low pressure condensing turbines .Topping turbines is generally used during extension of power station capacities with a view to obtain better efficiency because these turbine are starting at high steam pressure and temperature .
Low- pressure turbines with two or three pressure stages with supply of exhaust steam to its intermediate stages. The turbines enumerate under a and h usually have extractions for regeneration of steam at specific pressure for other purposes.
Low pressure (exhaust – pressure) turbines in which the exhaust steam from reciprocating steam engine, power hammer, pressure etc. Is utilized for power generation purposes.
According to the steam conditions at inlet to turbines:-
*Low pressure turbines using steam at pressure of 1.2 to 2 ata.
*Medium pressure turbines using steam at pressure of upto. 40 ata.
*High pressure turbines utilizing steam at pressure above 40 ata.
*Turbines of very high pressure utilizing steam at pressure of 170 ata and higher temperature of 535 deg. C and higher.
*Turbines of supercritical pressure using steam at pressure of 225 ata and above.
According to theirs usage in industry:-
Turbines with constant speed of rotation primarily used for driving alternators.
Steam turbines with variables speed meant for driving turbo blowers air circulator, pumps etc.
Turbines with variable speed: – turbines of this type are usually employed in steamers, ships and railway locomotive.
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