Working of electrostatic Precipitator
Today we discussed about a very important equipment of power plant that’s is electrostatic precipitator. ESP is used for the cleaning exhaust flue gases which is comes out from the chimney and help us for the environment protection
The principal of electrostatic Precipitator is attraction between particles having opposite charges. With the help of this flue gas is made to pass through a succession chamber which is called field made of steel ducting material with vertical plates suspended from top such that they do not obstruct the flow of flue gases but horizontally divided the flow in a large numbers of parallel paths. Generally the distance between two nearest plates are 600 mm. These plates are known collecting electrode or collector plates. Between these collector plates are rods or helical coil shaped component, which is electricity insulated from the collector plates and are suspended through insulating bushing from top of the chamber of field. These components are called emitting electrode. The emitting electrodes are negative charged with the help of a system of high voltage transformer and rectifiers.
Generally the voltage at which the emitting electrode are charged is of the order of 25 to 125 kilo volt DC . As the flue gas containing ash particles passing between the collector plates, the ash particles get negative charged by the emitting electrode and as a result they are attracted toward the collector plates and get deposits on them.
From time to time the collector plates are rapping with the help of a hammer system due to which the collected ash on the collector plates fall down into ash collection hoppers situated below the chamber.
From the above statement it cleared the slower the flow of flue gases through the arrangement of emitting electrode and collector plates the higher the ESP collection efficiency. Alternatively, the larger the area of collector plates the larger the collecting efficiency.
Following are the basic five activities take place in ESP:
• Ionization – Charging of particles
• Migration – Transporting the charged particles to the collecting surfaces
• Collection – Precipitation of the charged particles onto the collecting surfaces
• Particle Dislodging – Removing the particles from the collecting surface to the hopper
• Particle Removal – Conveying the particles from the hopper to a disposal point
Features of Electrostatic Precipitator:-
1. High installation coast but low operation cost.
2. Low pressure drops
3. Less maintenance required.
4. No physical obstacle (unlike bag filter ) to capture the dust.
5. Unique method of dosing out the dust , perpendicular to the flow of electrostatic charging.
6. Performance depending upon the synchronization of various functional aspects of different fields ( e.g electrical , mechanical and process )
7. Efficiency as high as 99.9 %
8. Efficiency fluctuates with process condition. ( e.g temperature and % of water)
9.performance increase with increase in dew point ( min. Dew point 50 degree Celsius )
10. Not suitable for high resistivity dust.
11. Hot ESP can handle gas temperature as high as 350 degree Celsius.
12. Well suited to treat alkali rich raw material.
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Adventage and disadvantage of electrostatic precipitator :-
Adventages of Electrostatic Precipitator :-
>Pressure drop of flue gases across ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator) is very less.
>ESP(Electrostatic Precipitator) can have efficiency of collection upto 99 %
>Electrostatic Precipitators provides ease of operation
>Silicon control rectifiers (SCR) and other modern control device allowed an ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator ) to operate automatically
>Maintenance cost is low
>The dust or fly-ash is collected in dry form and can be removed either dry or wet
Disadvantage of Electrostatic Precipitator ;-
>The size of ESP is large
>It is prone to corrosion if temperature of any part exposed to flue gas drops below acid dew point.
>ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator) is design for a particular type of fuel. if fuel characteristic changes performance of ESP also changes
>Capital cost of ESP is high
>For heavy dust load , suitable pre cleaner may be required
>The space required for electrostatic precipitators is larger than wet system
>As it operates at high voltage so it requires proper skills to handle
>If any combustible particle enters into ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator ) and a spark is initiated , there is chance of explosion
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