Working principal of steam turbine:-
Steam turbine is a power machine taking overheated steam with certain temperature and pressure as its motive force, and converting the heat energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor rotation. It is the most widely used prime mover in modern thermal power plants. Steam turbine has some advantages as bigger power of single stand, high thermal efficiency, smooth operation, low accident rate, long lifetime and so on. In the turbine, the steam’s heat energy can be converted into mechanical energy of rotation generally Steam turbine working on two different principles: one is the impulsive action principle, and the other one is the reaction action principle
Impulse action principle in Steam turbine working :-
From the mechanics we can know that when a moving object hit another stationary or moving object with a lower speed, it would be impeded and change its speed, at the same time give the other object a force, this force is called impulse force. The strength of this impulsive force depends on the mass and speed change of the moving object. The bigger the mass is, the greater the speed change is, the stronger the impulse force is.
The object hit by the impulsive force has velocity change that is the mechanical work the moving object does. When going through the steam turbine, the steam with a certain pressure and temperature first is accelerated and expanded in the static cascade channel, converting the steam heat energy into kinetic energy of high-speed gas flow, and then enters into the rotating blade channel, in which changing its direction or both changing its direction and accelerating and expanded to promote the impeller rotation, converting the kinetic energy of high-speed gas flow into rotating mechanical energy.
Impulse stage :-
When passing through the rotating blades, the steam flow is forced to be blended and change its direction due to the limitation of rotating blade channel shape, thereby forming the centrifugal force, which acts on the blade, known as the impulsive force. At this time the mechanical energy the steam makes on the stage of the steam turbine is equal to its kinetic energy change of the steam flow entering into and out of the rotating blades channel. This grade is called impulse- stage.
When going through the rotating blades channel, on the one hand the steam flow will change its direction, while also will accelerate and expand. The former change will produce an impulse force on the blade, while the later will produce a reaction force on the blades, which is called reaction force. In this stage of steam turbine, two kinds of power make energy at the same time. Usually this grade is called reactionary stage.
Reactionary action principle Steam turbine working From Newton’s second law, we can see that when an object exert a force on another object, this object is bound to has an reaction force with the same strength and opposite direction. Under this force, the other object moves or accelerates. This reaction force is call reactionary force. Making use of the reactionary force to make energy is called reactionary action principle Steam turbine working.
In the reactionary steam turbine, the steam expands in the nozzle, pressure decreases while velocity increases, high velocity flow produces an impulse force on the blade, while the steam also expand when passing through the blade, forcing the steam accelerates and flow out in the blade, and generates a reactionary force on the blade, that is reactionary force, forcing the blade to rotate and make energy. This is the reactionary action working principle of reactionary steam turbine.
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